Areas of application nanoamorphos metals not alloys, synthesized in the company "Nanoamorph Technology"
Our private company CJSC "Nanoamorph Technology" is the property of the President (Razmik Malkhasyan) and was founded in Republic Armenia. It has worked on scientific developments in the field of technology of producing nano-sized amorphous metals - not alloys (quantum -chemical technology about 10 patents since 1990), as well as on the production of nano amorphous products based on our patents (approximately 5 patents).
The main goal of our work is related to the obtainment of the amorphous nano scale molybdenum-Mo, Tungsten-W, etc. as well as their derivative compounds MoO2, MoO3, etc. We also obtain other metals in nano scale amorphous state, such as nickel Ni, iron Fe and copper Cu (technology is known, however so far there are gaps), the purity of their production not yet sufficiently high due to the very high activity of these materials (the same as all nano amorphous metals in general). The grain size of the obtained metals is less than 10 nm (2-10 nm).
We studied the basic physic-chemical properties of the obtained materials, in particular it is shown that substantially of all the nano amorphous materials have semiconducting properties till the temperature of their transition phase, which is less than a half of the melting temperature for all of them, for example, as it was crystallization temperature of nano amorphous tungsten-W, is reducing to T≈1200 0C at its melting temperature of T≈ 3420 0C. This reduction in the crystallization temperature for the refractory metals is a great advantage for their practical use. As it was first measured for the tungsten, all nano amorphous materials during the crystallization release heat which is approximately equal to the magnitude of the specific heat of melting, thus they have extra energy compared to their nano crystalline analogs [1 particle is attached].
Worth to mention, that the refractory nano metals are not even found in the crystalline state.
Nowadays it's clear for everyone, that impressive achievements of modern nanotechnology (based almost exclusively on the use of nano scale, but crystalline particles) are related to the fact that particle size of about 10 nm, a ratio S / V (the number of atoms on the surface -S to the number of atoms in the volume -V particles) equals to 50%, which leads to the appearance of new surface energy Grain Boundary Energy for particles, which is similar in nature to the energy of surface tension of liquids (in case of increased size of particle to about 100 nm , the energy value would have smaller
proportion). Clearly, this significant value of additional energy for our amorphous materials as compared to the nano crystalline analogs is a very big advantage in various applications of nano amorphous materials. Such a large energy saturation of our materials increases their chemical activity, which complicates the work with them, demanding vacuum conditions of their storage or creation of appropriate protective environment for their use.
On the other hand, such a high chemical activity of nano scale amorphous metals leads to significant decrease in the thresholds of almost all chemical processes and also to the dramatic increase of their catalytic activity with increasing their selectivity [3 patents] All this leads to the fact that every nanomaterial firstly obtained, has a set of their special properties, which, respectively, expand the scope of applications dramatically and it creates new areas of their application, in particular this applies to nano amorphous metals and their derivatives of the compounds. It should be emphasized, that if amorphous materials, as we have shown relatively easily converted into a nanocrystalline state (e.g. when W ~ 12000C), the reverse transition from the crystalline to the amorphous state is impossible. Thus, yielding nano sized metal in the amorphous state, we, if necessary, can transfer it to a known crystalline state while to give out the larger additional energy, which is itself a new and unique tool in nanotechnology with exceptional potential properties such as when attaching nanoparticles (such as in 3D printers) on the substrate surface or when creating nano chips, which can be created based on our metals. It becomes possible to create a hybrid amorphous crystalline structures, obviously dramatically expanding element base creation of modern chips.
As you know a potential annual market of nano crystalline materials according to the American government agencies is about $ 1 trillion (including education). Since we can relatively easier convert our amorphous material into crystalline counterparts, it is clear that our potential market is at least as much, and even more because of specifically unique properties of our materials, which is not inherent to crystals
Areas of application and respectively end-users can be divided into five main groups.
Nanoelectronics - This is the most powerful and most expensive area
Nanomedicine - This is the most important and wide range area of application
Nanocomposites - This area includes research and development in the field of composites based on polymer and metal matrix
Nanomaterials for 3D printers
Nano-sized detectors of various parameters of humidity, temperature, etc
This was determined by us with the sign and magnitude of the thermoelectric power, It allows to create a semiconductor chip with an operating temperature up to 10000C, as shown in my report.
Moreover, it allows to create a hybrid amorphous crystalline masks less semiconductor chips with the size of 2-4 nm.
We just slightly deal with this area, applying obtained nano amorphous molybdenum to radiation-irradiated mice. At its intramuscular insertion in certain concentrations in DMSO solvent, their life expectancy has increased by 6 times. Without doubts, the relevant experts in drug delivery systems will find other specific applications of its high activity.
Nano Composites Metallic:
Creation of amorphous nano scale metals with additional energy related to the crystal counterparts for the first time allows their use as binder additives to similar non nano scale metal matrixes, to increase the strength of the resulting composite which does not violate the elemental composition and without creating boundary defects for new grains. Released during crystallization of amorphous binding energy helps to reduce the temperature during compression or allow more compressed refractory metals at the same initial temperature compaction getting denser metal nano composites and therefore more durable metals..
There are known American working programs which are using nano crystalline additives, which as we've already mentioned dramatically inferior to our nano amorphous additives on energy contents.
Nano Composites Polimer:
Due to its high activity and isotropy (unlike the anisotropy of crystal materials) nano amorphous additives to polymer matrixes, have number of significant advantages. The obtained polymer composites which have adhesive composition, increase the bond strength up to 7 times with the addition of nano amporphous additives, while similar nano crystalline materials was decreasing adhesion strength by 1.65 times for the same matrix of chloroprene. We also obtained polymer nano composites in the form of solid bars or sheets. Ultimate strength this time was
increased to 6 and the elongation increased by 20% (i.e. the material becomes more flexible (elactic)), which is very important in practical applications of such kind of rubbers (e.g. aseismic rubbers or buffering purposes). Finally, using our fillers in other, more solid matrices (PPS) in the USA, we got increased durability of more than an order of magnitude, which is undoubtedly very important when they are used in a variety of friction, and it is due to isotropic filler and absence of scratching crystal faces.
Nanomaterials For 3D printers:
Currently started preparatory work and concrete results are not available
The studies of the properties and the applications of all these new nano amorphous metals and their derivatives of the compounds (for instance oxides) are still far from complete. We can already note, that nano amorphous molybdenum and tungsten oxide at room temperature are excellent moisture sensors, exceeding the sensitivity of highly porous SiC. They are good pressure and temperature sensors, and can serve as a marker of time. Also, they are good electrets with initial cell voltage up to 100 mV.
Based on the above end-users are:
Companies engaged in the production of nano chips (our materials can be used to create masksless chips which grain size will be less than 5 nm and which will operate at the temperatures up to 1000 ° C). This special purpose chips are for rocket and other industries.
Pharmaceutical companies engaged in targeted medicament delivery, moreover for people and animals with radiation injuries.
Companies involved in powder metallurgy plus metallurgical companies engaged in manufacturing of heavy-duty carbide and nano composites for various applications, in particular with the use of tungsten carbide W.
Companies involved in the chemical technology and the companies produces friction bearings and other friction units as well as the company manufacturing and using durable polymer composites.
Сustomers for aforementioned humidity detectors can be different companies starting from ware houses of agricultural products up to the climate control devices of different hospitals, various facilities and special sites, fixing and controlling perspiration. The end users of micro thermometers can be hospitals and places of unhindered continuous temperature control, for example, body-worn in the hospital and in the army. Time sensors are related to the fact that at the room temperature, resistance of dioxide tablet grows linearly with the increase of the relative resistance R / R by an amount 0,3x10-3 in hour. Continuous tests were carried out within 6 months. Same oxides WO2 and MoO2 pressed into tablet spontaneously showed EMF equal to 0.1 volts, which does not disappear after repeated shortening of contacts entered into a tablet during its compression.
Currently, we can produce up to 500 grams per month of all products, together it is about 8 different products at an average price of 200 $ / gr. Oxides sold at a price of 100 $ / gr. I showed the package from 10 to 100 gr. This beautiful boxes from obsidian. When buying a metal up to 10 grams, he again being sealed ampoules packed in pencil walnut. One vial contains 2-3 grams of metal Mo and 3-4 grams W.
The method of transport is air, but preferably as a baggage, since the metals are very active and can catch fire in the air (they are pyrophoric). Nanocrystals in the air do not burn.
Time of delivery depends on the time of the request. We have a stock of materials of about 500 grams of which the principal amount is not explosive molybdenum dioxide. This batch of products has Armenian certificate of quality and origin.
President and CEO of CJSC “Nanoamorph Technology”
Corresponding member of the Academy Sciences of Armenia
NANOAMORPH TECHNOLOGY CJSC